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❶ 我要初二下册的英语目录(人教版的)|

Unit 1:Will people have robots?
Unit 2:What should I do?
Unit 3:What were you doing when the UFO arrived?
Unit 4:He said I was hard-working.
Unit 5:If you go to the party, you'll have a great time!
Unit 6:How long have you been collecting shells?
Unit 7:Would you mind turning down the music?
Unit 8:Why don't you get her a scarf?
Unit 9:Have you ever been to an amusement park?
Unit 10:It'a nice day,isn't it?

❷ 人教版八年级下册英语pdf


❸ 人教版初二下册英语


Unit 1 Will people have robots?
do/does 的一般将来时态形式:(shall/will) do
do/does 的一般将来时态的被动语态:(shall/will) be done
肯定句例句:People will have robots in a few years.
否定句例句:People (will not/won't) have robots in a few years.
一般疑问句例句:Will people have robots in a few years?
特殊疑问句例句:What will people have in a few years?
重点短语:won't = will not
they'll = they will
she'll = she will
he'll = he will
I'll = I will
fall in love with(sb./sth.) 爱上(某人/某物)
be able to do sth. 能够做某事
come true 实现
in the future 未来
hundreds of 数以百计的
thousands of 数以千计的
look for(sb./sth.) 寻找(某人/某物)
will → would 情态动词 will 的原形和过去式
may → might 情态动词 may 的原形和过去式

Reading Strategy(阅读方法)
Look at the title and picture, and predict what you will read about. (看着标题和图片,预知你要阅读那些方面的内容。)This helps you get ready to acquire new information. (这样可以帮助你获得一些新的信息。)

Unit 2 What should I do?
do/does 的过去将来时态形式:(should/would) do
do/does 的过去将来时态的被动语态:(should/would) be done
肯定句例句:You should write a letter to him.
否定句例句:You shouldn't write a letter to him.
一般疑问句例句:Should I write a letter to him?
特殊疑问句例句:What should I do?
重点短语:keep sb. out 不让某人进入
What's wrong? = What's the matter? = What's the problem? 怎么了?
out of style 不时髦的;过时的
call sb. up 给某人打电话
pay for sth. 为某事付款
part-time job 兼职工作
the same as = be same (to/with) 与……同样
in style 时髦的;流行的
get on [well] with sb. = get along [well] with sb. 与某人相处(好)
didn't = did not
couldn't = could not
as ... as possible 尽可能……(eg/ as soon as possible 尽快)
all kinds of 各种;许多
on the one hand 一方面
on the other hand 另一方面
ask sb. for sth. = ask sb. to do sth. 请求某人做某事
ask sb. not to do sth. 请求某人不要做某事
spend (money) on sth. = spend (money) [in] doing sth. 花钱做某事
sth. cost sb. (money) 某人花钱为了某事
take sb. sometime to do sth. 花某人时间做某事
find out 查明
find sb. doing sth. 发现某人做某事
be angry with sb. 生某人的气
be angry at sth. 生某事的气
the same age as = as old as 与某人年龄一样
have fight with sb. 与某人打架
learn to do sth. 学会做某事
not ... until ... 直到……才……
compare sth.(A) with sth.(B) 把某事(A)与某事(B)作比较
it's time for sth. = it's time to do sth. 到该做某事的时间了
maybe adv. 或许
may be (情态动词 + 动词原形)可能是
shall → should 情态动词 shall 的原形和过去式
pay → paid → paid 动词 pay 的原形、过去式和过去分词

Reading Strategy(阅读方法)
You will learn to use new words better if you use a learner's dictionary. (时刻学着应用新单词来学习比时刻使用字典这种途径方法更好。)A bilingual dictionary sometimes gives the wrong meaning for the situation you want. (在某些你需要的场合下,一本双语字典有时会给你错误的解释。)

Unit 3 What were you doing when the UFO arrived?
do/does 的过去进行时态形式:(was/were) doing
do/does 的过去进行时态的被动语态:(was/were) being done
肯定句例句:I was walking down the street when a UFO landed.
否定句例句:I wasn't walking down the street when a UFO landed.
一般疑问句例句:Were you walking down the street when a UFO landed?
特殊疑问句例句:What were you doing when a UFO landed?

动词 when 和 while 的选择:when 后加瞬间动词,while 后加延续性动词。
例句:The boy was walking down the street when the UFO landed.
=While the boy was walking down the street, the UFO landed.

结构:(1) How + adj. + the + 主语 + 谓语动词
=(2) What + (a/an) + [adj.] + n. + 主语 + 谓语动词
例句:What a beautiful flower [it is]!
=How beautiful the flower is!
What beautiful flowers [they are]!
=How beautiful the flowers are!

重点短语:get out 出去;离开
take off 起飞
run away 逃跑;跑掉
come in 进来
hear about = hear of 听说
take place 发生
as ... as 像……一样(eg/ as old as him 像他一样老)
anywhere = everywhere = here and there 任何地方
think about 考虑
think of 认为
get up = get out of the bed 起床
at the doctor's 在诊所
every day 每一天
everyday adj. 日常的
most adj. 大部分
the most 最多的
in space 在太空中
national hero 民族英雄
all over the world = in the world 全世界

Reading Strategy(阅读方法)
The title can be helpful for you to understand a text. (一篇文章的标题可以帮助你理解整篇文章。)It's also a good idea to read the first sentence of each paragraph before you read. (在阅读整篇文章之前,阅读每段的第一句话也是一个很有效的方法。)

Unit 4 He said I was hard-working.
结构:主语 + 谓语动词 + 宾语从句(主语 + 谓语动词 + 宾语/表语)
例句:----I'm good at English. He says. (改为加宾语从句的复合句)
----He says I'm good at English.
例句:He says I'm good at English now.
He says I was good at mathematics when I was young.
例句:He said I was good at mathematics when I was young yesterday.
He said I was good at English now yesterday.
例句:Our teacher says 24 hours make a day.
Our teacher said the sun gives us so many energy yesterday.
④动词原形不能作主语,必须用其 -ing 形式。
例句:She said helping others changed her life.
重点短语:direct speech 直接引语
reported speech = indirect speech 间接引语
first of all = at first 首先
pass on 传递
be supposed to do sth. 应该做某事
be good at = do well in 在某方面做得好
in good health 身体健康
get over 克服
open up 打开
care for = take care of = look after 照料;照顾
not any more = not any longer = no longer 不再
have a cold 感冒
end-of-year exam 年终考试
get nervous 变得紧张
forget to do sth. 忘记做某事(该事未做)
forget doing sth. 忘记做某事(该事已做)
it's + adj. + [for sb.] + to do sth. 做某事[对某人来说]……(加形容词)
context 上下文

Reading Strategy(阅读方法)
First read for meaning, not for detail. (首先理解文段的大致意思,不在于文段的细节部分。)You can understand the meaning of a word you don't know from the context. (至于不懂的单词,你可以通过上下文来寻找它的正确释义。)

Unit 5 If you go to the party, you'll have a great time!
重点语法:if 引导的条件状语从句
结构:主句 + if + 条件状语从句
if + 条件状语从句 + [(comma)] + 主句
注意:在 if 引导的条件状语从句中,主句应用将来时态,状语从句用一般现在时态。
例句:You'll have a great time if you go to the party.
=If you go to the party, you'll have a great time.
重点短语:take away 拿走
around the world = all over the world 在世界各地
make a living 谋生
all the time = always 一直
What's the problem? = What's the matter? = What's wrong? 怎么了?
in order to do sth. 为了做某事
make sb. do sth. 使得某人做某事(to 省略,该结构是一个不带 to 的不定式。)
make sb. adj. 使得某人……(加形容词)
make sb. done 使得某人被做
be famous for 为……而出名
be famous as 作为……而出名
in class 在课堂上
spend ...(time/money) on sth. = spend ...(time/money) in doing sth. 花……(时间/钱)用于做某事
see sb. do sth. 看见某人做某事(强调整个过程)
see sb. doing sth. 看见某人做某事(强调偶然性)
say → said → said 动词 say 的原形、过去式和过去分词
tell → told → told 动词 tell 的原形、过去式和过去分词
eat → ate → eaten 动词 eat 的原形、过去式和过去分词
speak → spoke → spoken 动词 speak 的原形、过去式和过去分词

Unit 6 How long have you been collecting shells?
do/does 的现在完成进行时态形式:have/has been doing
do/does 的现在完成进行时态的被动语态:have/has been being done
I have been in Junior School for 3 years.
I have been making progress since he talked with me that time.
肯定句例句:I have been skating for five hours.
否定句例句:I haven't been skating for five hours.
一般疑问句例句:Have you been skating for five hours?
特殊疑问句例句:How long have you been skating?
How long have you been keeping this book?
重点短语:run out of 用完;用尽
by the way 顺便说说
be interested in doing sth. 对某事感兴趣
more than 比……多
far away 在远处
would like to do sth. = want to do sth. = feel like doing sth. 想要做某事
send sb. sth. = send sth. to sb. 把某物赠送给某人
in fact 实际上
room 房间(用于可数名词);空间(用于不可数名词)
common → more common → the most common 形容词 common 的原级、比较级和最高级

Reading Strategy(阅读方法)
Let your eyes "scan" the text quickly to find details that you're looking for. (在阅读文章之前,用眼睛“横扫”整篇文章,快速寻找你需要的文章要点。)You can find information quickly without reading the whole text. (这样你就不用细读整篇文章,就能寻找到你需要的一些信息。)

Unit 7 Would you mind turning down the music?
重点语法:mind [one's] doing sth. 介意(某人)做某事
重点短语:not at all 一点也不
turn down 调节使音量变小
right away = in a minute = at once 立刻;马上
wait in line 排队等候
cut in line 插队等候
hasn't = has not
keep ... down 压低声音;使缓和
at first = first of all 首先
take care 当心;小心
take care of = care about = look after 关心;照顾
break the rule 违规
obey the rule 遵守规定
put out 熄灭
pick sth. up 捡起某物
wait for sb. 等候某人
depend on 依赖;依靠
get back = return 要回
mean → meant → meant 动词 mean 的原形、过去式和过去分词

Reading Strategy(阅读方法)
As we read, we need to find "topic sentences".(在我们阅读的时候,我们需要寻找“主题语句”,也就是和文章中心最相关的语句。) These sentences usually gives us a "summary", or overall meaning of each paragraph and help us understand what the paragraph is about.(这些语句通常会给我们一些文章的“概要”,或者每个文段的全部意思,来帮助我们理解段落大意。) After the topic sentence comes more detail and explanation.(当“主题语句”出现后,该段的一些解释和细节也就会随之出现。)

Unit 8 Why don't you get her a scarf?
why don't you do sth. = why not do sth.
例句:Why don't you get her a camera? = Why not get her a camera?
what about = how about
例句:How about some tennis balls? = What about some tennis balls?
重点短语:fall asleep 入睡
give away 赠送;分发
hear of = hear about 听说
take an interest in = be interested in 对……感兴趣
make friends with 与……交友
make progress 取得进步
keep → kept → kept 动词 keep 的原形、过去式和过去分词
feed → fed → fed 动词 feed 的原形、过去式和过去分词
fall → fell → fallen 动词 fall 的原形、过去式和过去分词
hear → heard → heard 动词 hear 的原形、过去式和过去分词

Reading Strategy(阅读方法)
To understand the important ideas from the text, we must "summarize".(为了了解文段最主要的意图,我们必须要进行总结。) Do this by answering "who, what, where, why" questions as you read.(在阅读时,常注意回答时间、地点、人物这些基本要素问题,达到总结的目的。)

Unit 9 Have you ever been to an amusement?
do/does 的现在完成时态形式:(have/has) done
do/does 的现在完成时态的被动语态:(have/has) been done
I have ever been to America. It's the first time for me to go abroad.
重点短语:have a great time = have a good time = have fun = enjoy oneself 玩得高兴
on board 在船上
end up doing sth. 结束做某事
all year round = all over the year 终年
understand → understood → understood 动词 understand 的原形、过去式和过去分词

Reading Strategy(阅读方法)
After reading, write down three or more things you have learned. (在阅读整篇文章之后,把你学到的三样或更多事物写下来。)We always remember things better if we take time to reflect. (如果我们花时间去思考一些问题的话,那么我们就能更容易地记住一些事情。)

Unit 10 It's a nice day, isn't it?
例句:He's a student, isn't he?
She's not his mother, is she?
回答反意疑问句时,要根据事实来回答。若事实是肯定的,则必须用 yes 回答。若事实是否定的,则必须用 no 回答。
You're not ready, are you?
No, I'm not.
Yes, I am.

重点短语:look through 浏览
come along 出现;发生
get along 相处
at least 至少
at most 至多
a thank-you note 感谢信
forget → forgot → forgotten 动词 forget 的原形、过去式和过去分词
little → less → least 形容词 little 的原级、比较级和最高级
many/much → more → most 形容词 many/much 的原级、比较级和最高级

更多语法知识点请参见书后附录的 Grammar (语法) 章节。

❹ 急需!!新版人教版初二英语下册知识点大总结

◆unit 1 Will people have robots?

1. 形容词,副词的比较等级考查热点透视:
a) 表示A与B在程度上相同时, “as+形容词或副词的原级+as”结构。表示A不如B时,可用“not as/so+形容词或副词的原级+as”结构。
b) 表示A比B在程度上“更…..”时,可用“形容词或副词的比较级+than”结构
c) 表示三者或三者以上的比较,其中一个在程度上“最…..”时,常用“the+形容词或副词的最高级”结构,后面可带“of/in的短语”来说明比较的范围。(注意:副词的最高级在句中常省略“the”.)
d) 在形容词或副词的比较级前,可以用“a little, even, far, much,still”的等词语来修饰,以加强语气。
e) 表示“越来越….”时,常用“形容词或副词的比较级+and+形容词或副词的比较级”结构,但要注意,对于多音节和部分双音节形容词,副词而言,若要表达此意时,要用“more and more+形容词或副词的原级“结构。
f) 在表示“其中最….之一“的含义时,常使用 “one of+the+形容词最高级形式+名词复数”结构,其中的定冠词the不可以省略。
g) 如果强调“两者中比较…的(一个)”的意思时,可使用“the+形容词比较级+其它”结构。
h) 表示“越….越….”, 可使用“the+形容词或副词的比较级,the+形容词或副词的比较级”结构。
2 .一般将来时
a) 一般将来时的构成:由助动词shall或will加动词原形构成,shall用于第一人称。在口语中,will在名词或代词后常简略为’ll, will not常简略为won’t。这个时态的肯定,否定和疑问结构可表示如下:
肯定句 否定句 疑问句
I (We)shall(will) go.
You(He, She, They) will go. I(We)shall(will) not go.
You(He, She, They)will not go. Shall I(we) go?
Will you (he, she, they) go?

用”be going to +动词原形”也可表示将来时,表示将要发生的事,打算或决定要做的事。
b)一般将来时的用法:1)表示将要发生的动作或情况;2) 不以人的意志为转移,肯定要发生的事情。The day after tomorrow will be National Day.后天是国庆日。
3. in/after:in是指以现在时间为起点的“在一段时间以后”。也可以表示“在将来多少时间之内”,句子中的谓语动词要用一般将来时态;after常指以过去时间为起点的“一段时间之后”,所以它与过去时态连用。当after指某个特定的未来时刻或日期之后,或指以将来某一时间为起点的若干时间之后时,它可以与将来时态连用。
4.more, less, fewer的用法区别:more为many, much的比较级,意为“更多”,可修饰可数与不可数名词。Less是little的比较级,意为“更好,较少”,修饰不可数名词。Fewer是few的比较级,意为“更少”,修饰可数名词复数。
【注意】few, little表示否定“几乎没有”。a few, a little表示肯定“一点,几个”。
5.would like sth意思为“想要某物“; would like to do意思为”想要做某事“。回答would like句型的一般疑问句时,其肯定回答为 “Yes, please.”;否定回答“No, thanks”或 “I’d like /love to, but….”
6. Such作形容词,意思是“如此的”“这样的”,修饰各种名词。
Such这样的。如It is such bad weather.天气如此恶劣。?
Such常和as搭配,表示一种类别。如We enjoy such a voice as hers.我们喜欢象她那样的嗓子。?
It was such a hot day that we all had to stay at home.
Such…that…和so…that…都可用来引出一个结果状语从句。由于such是形容词,所以that从句前有一个受such修饰的名词;而so 是副词,用以修饰形容词或副词,因此that从句前一般不出现名词。如?
They are such kind-hearted teachers that people in the village all respect them.
The exam was so difficult that many students failed to pass it.
a) 如果名词是可数名词的单数形式,such和so的位置不同:
b) 如果名词是不可数名词或名词复数,只可用such,不能用so.:
c) 如果被修饰的不可数名词被much, little, 或复数名词被many, few等表示量的形容词修饰时,用so,不用such.
d) 当little表示“年纪小的”时,可用such+little+名词。
7.be able to 为“能,会”,表示能力,在这个意义上与can的意思相同,一般情况下两者可以互换,但can只有现在式和过去式(could)而be able to则用于更多的时态,主要体现在be的变化。两者在用法上有一些差异:can (could)表示主观能力不表示意愿,它的将来时用will be able to而 be able to表示主观意愿强调克服困难做某事。

◆unit 2 What should I do?
1..loud是形容词,loud-louder-loudest意思是“响亮的”;作副词时,常与talk, sing, laugh 等词连用,如speak loud; loudly “大声地”带有喧闹的意味,常用来修饰shout, cry, call, knock等动词,通常没有比较级和最高级,作状语;aloud 副词,出声地,大声地,仅指发出声音(以使能被听得见)。
2.Enough为形容词,意思是“足够的”;enough +n.修饰名词enough money; adj/adv+enough修饰形容词或副词;enough to do 足够做某事
3.present, gift礼物:gift带有一定的感情色彩,通常指昂贵的“礼物”,强调送礼人的诚意,有时有“捐赠”之意,多用于正式场合;present指为表达情谊,敬意或出于礼节,在某特定时刻或场合赠送的“礼物”,此礼物价值不一定高。make sb a present of把…作为礼物送给
4.borrow, lend: borrow“借入,借给”即说话人向他人借东西borrow sth from sb.; lend-lent-lent“借出,借给”即说话人把自己的东西借给他人lend sb sth= lend sth to sb
5 except,besides除…之外: except除了…都,besides强调“除了…之外还有…”在no one, nobody, nothing等词后加介词but也表示“除了”。
6.find out, find, look for: find out“找出,发现,查明”多指通过调查,询问,打听,研究之后搞清楚,弄明白或指找出较难找到的,无形的抽象的东西;find“找到,发现”通常指找到或发现有形的东西也可指偶然发现某物的某种情况,强调找的结果;look for“寻找”强调动作。
7.talk about谈到,谈论;talk of谈到,说到;have a talk with与..谈谈,做报告;talk to sb对…谈话;talk with sb与…交谈;talk to sb和talk with sb 均表示“和某人谈话”,“讲话”。talk to sb比较常用,侧重一方谈,一方听;talk with sb侧重双方交谈;talk about sb则表示“谈论某人”
8.miss 和lose:miss意思为“发现丢失”“觉得不在”;lose意思为“丢失”“失去”。在本质上,miss是一种主观感觉,而lose是一种客观结果。
9.be used to doing习惯于做某事;used to do过去常常,暗含与现在明显的不同,只用于过去时;be used to do是use的被动语态,意思是….被用来做某事。
10.own 与 have: own强调的是拥有,占有某物为自己的财产,但所占有的东西目前不一定是由人使用,强调所有权;have为普通动词,表示的所有关系。own +n. egWho owns the dog? ;own +宾语+宾补 eg. He owns himself wrong.;own+从句eg. He owns that he is wrong. ;of one’s own完全属于某人自己的;on one’s own独立地,自愿地;with one’s own ears亲耳
11. attend, join, take part in: attend“出席,参加,上学”attend school 上学,attend meeting出席会议;take part in 参加,是指参与某项活动 take an active part in积极参加;join 参加,当join用于加入某个团体或组织,成为其中的一员,后面直接跟名词,当join表示参加某项活动时后面跟介词in .

◆unit 3 What were you doing when the UFO arrived?
1. 过去进行时
a) 过去进行时由“was/were+动词ing形式”构成。以动词work为列,其肯定式,否定式,疑问式以及简略答语见下表:
肯定式:I/He/She/It was working. We/You/ They were working.
否定式:I/He/She/It was not working. We/You/They were not working.
疑问式和简略答语:Was I working? Yes, you were.
Was he working? No, he wasn’t.
【注意】was not常简略为wasn’t; were not常简略为weren’t
b) 过去进行时的用法:过去进行时表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间正在进行的动作。这一特定的过去时间,除有上,下文暗示以外,一般用时间状语来表示
2. not …until直到…才。表示动作在某时之前尚未开始,直到此时动作才开始。not…until可以用after或when来代替,但主句谓语动词要用肯定形式。Until为连词时后接时间状语从句,until作介词时,后面接表示时间的名词。Until 用于肯定句多表示动作或状态一直延续到until所表示的时间为止,意思为“直到…” from..till…中till往往表示不太具体的时间。From …to…或from…until常用来表示具体的时间。
3. find it…to do,it在此句中为形式宾语代表动词不定式,动词不定式为真正的宾语,常用于这种用法的动词有find, feel, think, make等。
4. “疑问词+不定式“结构相当于一个名词性从句,常常可用同等成分的从句代替。改写时,只需在疑问词后面加一个适当的主语(这个主语一般与主句的主语一致),并将不定式改成适当形式的谓语即可。如,Where to go is still a question.= Where we should go is still a question.
5. when 与while:when连接的状语从句是个特殊句型,“前一个分句(谓语动词用过去进行时)+when(作并列连词,意思为“这时,突然”)+后一个分句(谓语动词用一般过去时)”表示在前一个动作正在进行的过程中突然发生了后一个动作, when强调动作的突然性,when后面的动词为非延续性动词;while表示“在….过程中”,强调在一段时间内,所以while引导的从句中的谓语动词必须为延续性动词。在状语从句中,若从句放在句首时,应用逗号与主句隔开。
6. 感叹句的构成:What +a/an+形容词+单数名词+主语+谓语!What a good book it is!
What+形容词+复数可数名词+主语+谓语!What easy questions they are!
What+形容词+不可数名词+主语+谓语!What cold weather it is!
How+形容词+主语+be动词!How nice the watch is!
How +副词+主语+谓语!How hard they are working!
8.take place, happen“发生”:take place指“发生事先计划或预想到的事物”;happen指“一切客观事情或情况的偶然或未能预见地发生”。两者都是不及物动词或短语,后面不能跟宾语,也不能用于被动语态;happen的意义很广泛,而take place 仅用于历史上的事件,集会等,是先行布置而后发生或举行的事件,它不用于地震等自然界的现象。
happen to do 巧遇 sth happens to sb某人遭遇某事
9.不定代词all, both, each,every与not连用时,只表示部分否定,在否定句中用and连接两个宾语,表语,定语,状语时,只表示部分否定,并且否定 and后面的部分;如用or连接句中两个部分,则表示全部否定。如,She isn’t a bright and beautiful girl.她并不是一个既聪明又漂亮的女孩。(部分否定) She isn’t a bright or beautiful girl.她是一个既不聪明又不漂亮的女孩。(全部否定)。

◆unit 4 He said I was hard-working.
1. 在称述句中直接引语和间接引语的转换:
a) 直接引语:说话人直接引用别人的原话。
b) 间接引语:说话人用自己的话把别人的意思转述出来。
c) 直接引语一般前后要加引号;间接引语不用引号。
d) 规则:1)人称变化:从句中的第一人称多改为第三人称;第二人称根据情况改为第一或第三人称;第三人称不变。2)时态变化:如果主句的谓语动词是一般过去时,直接引语变为间接引语时从句的谓语动词在时态方面要做以下变化:
直接引语 间接引语
一般现在时 一般过去时(客观真理除外)
一般将来时 过去将来时
现在进行时 过去进行时
直接引语 间接引语
指示代词 this这 these这些 that那 those那些
时间状语 now现在 then那时
today 今天 that day 那天
tonight 今晚 that night那天晚上
this week 这星期 that week那个星期
yesterday 昨天 the day before前一天
last week 上星期 the week before前一个星期
ago以前 before 以前
tomorrow明天 the next/following day第二天
next week 下星期 the next week 第二个星期
地点状语 here 这里 there 那里
动词 come来 go 去
【注意】1)直接引语中的时间状语根据实际情况转述为间接引语时,有时不需要改变,如tomorrow。如果转述的动作发生在当天,无需改变;如果转述的动作不在当天,则需将tomorrow变为the next day.
2.habit, practice, custom: habit指“个人由于自然条件,社会环境,爱好或经常接触而导致可以为常的行为或特性”;practice语气比habit弱,指“个人或大家都习惯了的做法或工作与生活的方式。”;custom指“经过一段时期在某人,地区或社会中形成的传统习惯或风俗。”
3.bring, take, carry: bring指“从别处把东西或人带来”“拿来”,表示将人或物带到或拿到说话者所在的位置的这个动作;take指“把东西带走或拿走”,表示将人或物拿开或带离说话者所在的位置的这个动作; carry指“随身携带(不说明方向)有时含有 “负担”的意思。
4.Surprise用法:1)surprise作名词,表示“惊奇,诧异”;2)surprise作几物动词(后接某人作宾语)表示“使…惊奇”;surprise的过去分词作表语,表示“感到惊奇”;to one’s surprise表示“使…吃惊的是”;be surprised at sth/sb表示“对…感到惊奇”。
5.however 与 but:两者均可作“但是,然而”,而且都引出并列分句。从语义上看,but所表示的是非常明显的对比,转折的意味较however要强;从语法上看,but是并列连词,而however却是连接副词;从语序上看,but总是位于所引出的分句前,而however却可位于句首,句中和句末,但是译成汉语时一定要把它放在分句之首;从标点符号上看,but之后一般不使用逗号,而however则必须用逗号分开。However当连词用时,“无论以何种方式,不管怎样”,引导让步状语从句。
6.first, at first与first of all:1)first可以做副词,意思是“首先,第一次,最初地”,指第一次做某事或首先做某事,first还可以用作形容词,意思是“第一的,最初的,主要的,一流的”,first作名词,意思是“首要,第一,最初”2)at first的意思是“起初,当初”,指刚刚开始做某事的时候,暗示后来的情况有所改变3)first of all的意思是“第一,最初,首先”,同first的用法相同,但语气上比first要强,常常用来加强语气。
7.true, real: true意思为“真的”“真正的”,强调与实际相符,而不是杜撰的,它与real相对。与to连用,意思是“忠实的”,true用作名词,与定冠词the连用,表示“真实,真理”等;real无此意。Real是形容词,强调客观存在的“真实”“实在”,不是想象的。
8.above, on,over:三者都有“在…上”之意。1)on表示两者上下紧贴在一起2)over表示一种直接的垂直概念,但没有上下紧贴的意思,反义词为under.3)above既不表示垂直的上下概念,也无相互紧贴的意思,反义词是below.

◆unit5 If you go to the party, you’ll have a great time.
1. If引导的条件状语从句:1)构成:if引导的条件状语从句表示“如果…”。构成形式为“主句+一般将来时时态+if从句+一般现在时态”,或“If从句+一般现在时态,主句+一般将来时态”。2)用法:表示假设或条件
2. half 与half of的用法:1)half the class中的“half”为形容词,意思“一半的,半个的”2) “half of+代词/the+名词”中的half为名词,意思为“一半,半个”。当该结构在句子作主语时,谓语动词必须和该词组中的代词或名词保持数的一致。即当代词或名词为单数时,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式;若所接名词或代词为复数,则谓语动词用复数形式。
3. all the time与always: all the time是个副词性的短语,意思为“一直”“始终”,表示某一特定阶段开始一直到结束,不表示频度,多置于句末。除此,all the time还有“不断”的意思;always为表示频度的副词,意思为“总是”,表示动作的反复,状态的继续,中间没有间断,其反义词为never。它与进行时态连用时,常翻译成“总是”,“老是”,带有赞美,厌烦,不满等感情色彩。
4.Enough的用法:1)enough to do sth表示“足够…可以做…”2)enough也可以用“for+宾语+to do sth的结构”3)enough修饰名词时前面不用冠词4)当主语是代词时,enough可以作表语。当主语是名词时,enough不能做表语。
5.Choose的用法:1)choose+名词 意思为“选择…”;2)choose+between/from从…中选择;3)choose to do选择做某事
7.wear, put on, have on, dress: wear“穿着”“戴着”,表示状态,是延续性动词,一般现在时表示经常状态,现在进行时表示暂时状态;put on“穿上”“戴上”,表示动作,是非延续性动词;have on“穿着”“戴着”,表示状态可以与wear互换;dress“穿上”“穿着”,既表示状态,也表示动作,既可以作及物动词,也可以作不及物动词。Dress作及物动词,表示“给自己或别人穿(衣服)”,宾语是人,常用被动语态。dress oneself给。。穿衣服。dress up化装
8.a lot, a lot of与lots of三者都有“许多,很多”的意思。a lot of, lots of一般用于肯定句,后接可数名词复数或不可数名词;a lot作名词时=a lot of thins,作副词,修饰动词或形容词,副词比较级。

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